In addition to providing a programmatic interface for popular causal…. Microsoft Research is actively developing technologies as we continually strive to make our network and online services the most performant and efficient on the planet and this includes openly sharing our progress in advancing the state of the art with the research community.
The 19th Microsoft Research Faculty Summit yet again demonstrated its unique place in the world of computer science in gathering thought leaders, state-of-the-art ideas, new products and a sense of the possible under one roof as industry and leading academic researchers came together to share vision and purpose. More than leading experts from academia, Microsoft Research and Microsoft gathered in Redmond, Washington August to participate in the event, themed this year under the….
Featured posts DoWhy — A library for causal inference For decades, causal inference methods have found wide applicability in the social and biomedical sciences. As computing systems start intervening in our work and daily… August 21st, Featured Posts A brief history of networking and a bit about the future too with Dr. Playing to the crowd and other social media mandates with Dr. Nancy Baym Episode 41, September 12, Dr.
Baym shares her insights on… September 12th, Deep Learning Indaba The following year, a group of researchers set out to change this, founding a world-class machine learning conference that would strengthen African machine… September 10th, Computer Vision at Microsoft: Thinking outside-of-the-black-box of machine learning on the long quest to perfecting automatic speech recognition Speech recognition is something we humans do remarkably well, which includes our ability to understand speech even in noisy multi-talker environments.
Significant technological progress that has been made over decades has shaped automatic speech recognition technology into its current form, which is already… August 31st, Malmo, Minecraft and machine learning with Dr. Katja Hofmann Episode 39, August 29, - Dr. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it.
Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis.
This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are part of most formal historical research: The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.
It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. According to artist Hakan Topal , in artistic research, "perhaps more so than other disciplines, intuition is utilized as a method to identify a wide range of new and unexpected productive modalities". This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research.
The Society for Artistic Research SAR publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research JAR ,   an international, online, open access , and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue RC ,    a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.
Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The major steps in conducting research are: The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.
Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis.
The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.
Plato in Meno talks about an inherent difficulty, if not a paradox, of doing research that can be paraphrased in the following way, "If you know what you're searching for, why do you search for it?!
The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure:. There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:.
Social media posts are used for qualitative research. The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment.
If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.
In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher s may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights. Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.
Non-empirical theoretical research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation.
As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science.
Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on.
A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.
Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving research, including scientific research. These principles include deontology , consequentialism , virtue ethics and value ethics.
Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation , such as: Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research.
The key agreement here is the Declaration of Helsinki. The Nuremberg Code is a former agreement, but with many still important notes. Research in the social sciences presents a different set of issues than those in medical research  and can involve issues of researcher and participant safety, empowerment and access to justice.
When research involves human subjects, obtaining informed consent from them is essential. In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant.
The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection. Non-Western methods of data collection may not be the most accurate or relevant for research on non-Western societies. Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.
Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge.
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Search is try to find something by looking or otherwise seeking carefully and thoroughly, whereas research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Watch video · The Microsoft Research Podcast An ongoing series of conversations bringing you right up to the cutting edge of Microsoft Research.
Find freelance Internet Research work on Upwork. Internet Research online jobs are available. Skip to main content. Upwork Close navigation. Submit search Switch Research search trends or anyother strategy at your disposal This job was posted from a mobile device, so please pardon any typos or . Recent research shows that the disease is caused in part by bad nutrition. The study is an important piece of research. He did a lot of research before buying his car.